Univeral Design for Teaching and Learning

Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a concept or framework that is applied to all types of learners in the classroom, online courses, mobile and beyond. This concept ensures that the techniques and tools are created, optimized and accessible to meet all learning styles or needs and different abilities because all students learn differently; not one size fits all. Several videos offer powerful and thought-provoking perspectives of how we can empower and retain our learners efficiently.

  • The Myth of Average
    Ted Rose from Harvard presents how we can foster our learners’ learning potential. His metaphor illustrates jagged size and learning profiles between a pilot and a student.
  • Universal Design at McGill University
    Faculty and learners from McGill University share their experiences with UDL and how that includes all diverse learners.
  • Universal Design
    This video illustrates powerful silent UDL examples from the learner perspectives.

UDL Principles

UDL is composed of three key principles:

  1. Representation
    Present same information and materials in multiple ways that appeal to learners’ learning.
  2. Engagement
    Entice learners’ interest and motivation to learning through different interactions.
  3. Expression
    Offer alternatives to learners so they can express their learning or knowledge.

Survey: UDL Principles are Vital to Learning

California University System surveyed 764 students with and without disabilities statewide in 2009. Students in both groups perceived the key UDL principles as vital to their learning.

Key UDL Principles Students Without Disabilities Students With Disabilities

“Offer multiple ways to teach important concepts visually and verbally.”

80% 81%

“Offer clear and specific feedback on assignments and encourage re-submission of assignments, as appropriate.”

83% 93%

“Provide clear guidelines and evaluation rubrics for all major course assignments.”

82% 90%

UDL and Accessibility

The key UDL principles guide instructors or educators to optimize their curriculum with multiple approaches and clarity that will ultimately meet each learner need without any barriers to their learning. This enhances their students’ learning significantly.

When it comes to course content, learning environment, or technology, this is when accessibility comes into play. When any of these is made accessible, learners with or without disabilities (i.e., English as a Second Language) should be able to access, use or understand information successfully. Device such as screen reader or captioning service must ensure that learners can utilize in their learning process effectively.

Some of the common barriers that impede learning are:

  • Instructional delivery (vs promotional learning)
  • Course content
  • Learning environment
  • Technology

Utilization of key UDL principles and accessibility applications to techniques or tools will prevent learning barriers for all learners. The learner retention rate will increase significantly for all types of learners.

Diverse Learners on the Rise

The ever increasing student population also has a variety of learning differences in term of age, race, responsibilities, international students and disabilities. Bryan Cook from Dept. of Special Education at University of Hawaii at Manoa (May, 2009) presented these statistics:

  • Increasingly diverse college student body
    • 40% age 25 or older
    • 31% racial/ethnic minorities
    • 34% attending college part-time
    • 20% increase in international students from 1998 to 2004
    • Students with disabilities
      • 2.3% in 1978 to 9.8% in 1998

With such increasingly diverse learning differences, the utilization of universal design becomes an important tool for instruction, learning, and accessibility.


CAST. (2015). About Universal Design for Learning. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html

Cook, B. G. (2009, May). Universal Design for Instruction: Practical Techniques for Post- secondary Education. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.ist.hawaii.edu/presentations/

Nine Common Elements of Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education survey. (2012). Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://enact.sonoma.edu/content.php?pid=218878&sid=2028802, Course Redesign Resources: 9 Common Elements of UDL (PDF)